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Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania provide a molecular map of every cell in a developing animal embryo.

In a paper in Science this week, Penn researchers report the first detailed molecular characterization of how every cell changes during animal embryonic development. Murray, the School of Arts and Sciences' Junhyong Kim, and Robert Waterston of the University of Washington UW , used the latest technology in the emergent field of single cell biology to profile more than 80, cells in the embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

Each cell of a developing nematode worm embryo is catalogued at the molecular level in a new paper out in Science. Visualized this way, the data form various thin "trajectories" that correspond to tissues and individual cell types. Using single cell genomics methods, we were able to identify over 87 percent of embryonic cells from gastrulation when there are about 50 cells present through the end of embryogenesis.

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In a multicellular organism, every cell is derived by cell division from a single fertilized egg, resulting in a "cell lineage tree" that shows the division history of every cell, and describes their relationships to each other, akin to a genealogy. The Nobel prize winning work of Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, and John Sulston worked out the cell lineage tree of C. To further elucidate the process of development, the Penn and UW teams characterized what happens at the molecular level by measuring the transcriptome--all the RNAs in a cell--of individual cells during development using a single cell genomics approach.


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These methods allow scientists to determine which genes are expressed, or turned on, in each of tens or hundreds of thousands of cells and to identify rare cell types based on their expression of similar subsets of the genes. However, it is difficult to know in these studies whether all cell types have been identified, or how the identified cells are related to each other through cell division.

The lead authors, graduate students Jonathan Packer of UW and Qin Zhu of Penn, developed sophisticated data analysis programs and algorithms to trace the changes in the transcriptome to the temporal sequences in the cell lineage tree, revealing detailed dynamics of molecular changes required to generate the full body of C. The investigation helps reveal fundamental mechanisms involved in how cells specialize their function during development.

For example, the researchers showed that cells with very different lineage histories can rapidly converge to the same molecular state, such that they can no longer be distinguished.

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The researchers also found that, during differentiation, some cells undergo strikingly rapid changes in their transcriptomes. In addition, this work will contribute to applications in regenerative medicine and cellular engineering, such as controlling the cell-differentiation process involved in using patient's own cells for therapy.


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How Chlamydia gain access to human cells Northwestern University chemists have used visible light and extremely tiny nanoparticles to quickly and simply make molecules that are of the same class as Almost everyone uses nanometer-sized alumina these days - this mineral, among others, constitutes the skeleton of modern catalytic converters in cars. Until now, the practical production of nanocorundum with a sufficiently high porosity has not been possible.

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Programs like Audacity are also called open source software, because their source code is available for anyone to study or use. There are thousands of other free and open source programs, including the Firefox web browser, the LibreOffice or Apache OpenOffice office suites and entire Linux-based operating systems such as Ubuntu.

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